After a series of conferences, mired in disagreement, delegates signed a global but non-binding agreement at COP21 held in Paris, France, in 2015 to limit the rise in global average temperature to a maximum of 2°C (3.6°F) above the pre-industrial level, while striving to keep this rise at 1.5°C (2.7°F) above pre-industrial level. The pioneering agreement signed by the 196 signatories to the UNFCCC effectively replaced the Kyoto Protocol. He also ordered a five-year progress review and the development of a fund with a turnover of $US 100 billion by 2020, which would be replenished annually to help developing countries adopt technologies that do not produce greenhouse gases. In 2011, Canada, Japan and Russia said they would not adopt further Kyoto targets.  On December 12, 2011, the Canadian government announced, with effect from December 15, 2012, its withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol, which is possible at any time three years after its ratification.  Canada has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 6% compared to 1990 by 2012, but in 2009 emissions were 17% higher than in 1990. The Harper government has prioritized the development of the oil sands in Alberta and has depriororized the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Environment Minister Peter Kent spoke of Canada`s responsibility for “huge financial penalties” under the treaty if it did not withdraw.   He also suggested that the recently signed Durban Agreement could offer another way forward.
 The Harper government has stated that it will find a “made in Canada” solution. Canada`s decision received a generally negative response from representatives of other raking countries.  1992 – Rio de Janeiro hosts the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. This results, inter alia, in the Framework Convention on Climate Change (“UNFCCC” or “UNFCCC”). In May 2013, 191 countries and a regional economic organization (EC) ratified the agreement, accounting for more than 61.6% of 1990 emissions from Annex I countries.  One of the 191 states that ratified, Canada, renounced the protocol. The United States, which had ratified the original Kyoto agreement, left the protocol in 2001. The U.S. thought the deal was unfair because it only asked industrialized countries to limit emissions reductions, and it thought it would hurt the U.S. In December 2012, at the end of the Protocol`s first commitment period, the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol met in Doha, Qatar, to adopt an amendment to the original Kyoto Agreement. This Doha amendment added new emission reduction targets for the second commitment period 2012-2020 for participating countries. The amendment of the Doha Constitution had a short life.
In 2015, at the Paris Summit on Sustainable Development, all UNFCCC participants signed another pact, the Paris Climate Agreement, which effectively replaced the Kyoto Protocol. The protocol left open several issues that were to be decided later by the Sixth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC, which attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in The Hague at the end of 2000, but failed to reach an agreement due to disputes between the European Union (which advocated tougher implementation) and the United States. Canada, Japan and Australia (who wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible). The agreement is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and which did not set legally binding restrictions on emissions or enforcement mechanisms. . . .